Whenever the Indian Independence movement is mentioned, it refers to the end of the East India Company rule. This occurred in 1818 when the third Anglo Maratha War ended, which marked the beginning of the end of British rule.
The East India Company was a private company that was designed to monopolize trade, and it ended up having governmental powers, as the British government had little power over the corruption that ensued.
How did India gain its independence from its colonizers?
The first movements by Indian citizens were more passive and sought better provisions for citizens, such as the right to appear for civil service examinations, as well as more economic rights. However in the early 20th century, a more aggressive and radical approach came about with the actual move towards political independence. Leaders such as Aurobindo Ghosh and others were instruments in that movement.
From the 1920s on, there were several factions that were gaining popularity for more freedom for the people of India, with the Congress adopting Mohandas Gandhi’s policy of civil resistance and non-violence. A struggle for the rights of minorities led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah the exhortations of Bhagat Singh, and the suggestion of Subhas Chandra Bose for an armed revolution as a means of achieving independence.
During the World War II, the Quit India Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi, and the movement of the Indian National Army led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose led to the withdrawal of the British, eventually.
Over the years, all of these movements led to the formation of the Indian Independence Act in 1947. This created the independent states of Pakistan and India. India was still under the dominion of the Crown of Great Britain until January of 1950 when India placed into force the Constitution of India, which established the Republic of India.
The entire movement for Indian independence was broad as it encompassed many different factions of the society. It was largely capitalist oriented, coupled with a political need to be shed of the political and economic corruption that was brought upon the land by Great Britain.
India had been dealing with the European influence ever since Vasco da Gama discovered India and the spice trade in 1498. The Dutch and English set up outposts for trading a century later, and after the battle of Plassey in 1757 where the British defeated the Indian army, they established themselves as an economic and political force, which became oppressive over the Indian people.
A long and arduous journey of a backward society versus a more modern overlord ensued over the next 200 years until the Indians finally gained their own freedom back. Actually it was the indifferent attitude of the British who had for years dismissed the primary Indian traditions as well as their leaders, which triggered the anger and the impetus for India to finally take back their country.
India and UK at Present
Today, as both countries look back on those former years, they both are friendly towards each other, as the UK has an ethnic Indian population of over 1.6 million. It was a long and difficult struggle for both countries, but the Indian people know that the struggle for the country’s Independence was worth it.